Sherani is one of the 34 districts of Balochistan with a population of 1,53116 as per Census-2017. Its total area is 4800 Sq. Kilo meter, whereas, its population density is 55/Sq. Kilometer. The District is bounded by South Waziristan on the North, Dera Ismail Khan District (DIK) on the East, Musakhel District on the Southeast and on its South and West lies the District of Zhob. Famous Zhob River flows from North West to North East. Sherani District is one of the District of Zhob Division. Other Districts of the Division are Zhob and Killa Saifullah.
The earlier history of the District is enshrouded in obscurity like that of the rest of Balochistan. At the beginning of the seventh century a Chinese pilgrim who visited India, Xuanzang, made the first mention of Zhob, describing it as the abode of Pashtuns. In 1398 Pir Muhammad bin Jahangir Mirza, grandson and appointed successor of Timur Lung (Tamerlane), led an expedition against the Pashtuns of the Suleiman Mountains. Sherani was a quasi-independent and quite refractory tribe until brought under British control in the winter of 1890 following the Khiderzai expedition. In the north-east of the Balochistan plateau, Zhob and Sherani Basin forms an oval surrounded on all sides by mountains. Qais Abdul Rashid (575-661 A.D.), believed to be one of the progenitors of the Pushtoons, lived in the Suleiman Mountains. Natives call the place where he is buried “Da Kase Ghar” (the mountain of Qais).In 1883, with the consent of the chiefs of the Sherani tribe (the inhabitants of the range), a survey party under Major Holdich, R.E., ascended the mountain, accompanied by a military escort. They found the summit of the ridge to consist of a long valley between two high rims, covered with the chilgoza or edible pine (Pinusgerardiana). At the north end of the western rim is the highest peak, known as KaisaGhar, 11,300 feet above sea level; at the south end of the eastern rim is the Takht, properly so called, 3441 meters (11,060 feet) above sea level perpendicularly some 15,000 feet. The gorge gradually narrows from 20 yards to a few feet. The British made a road through the pass, thus connecting Zhob with Dera Ismail Khan. It took a decade, from 1895 to 1905, to complete the road.
The general elevation of the district is about 1500 to 3000 meters. Shin Ghar is 9273 feet high. Tor Ghar is the continuation of the southern hills of the Suleiman range; its highest peak is Charkundai (7517 feet above sea level). Dhana Sir, the head of Dhana (elevation 3900 feet), is on a rough stony plateau, along with the bed of the Chuhar Khel Dhana. Between the Chuhar Khel and Khiddarzai Dhanas is a very narrow and steep pass called Khaoaranai Narai. The Hatsu Bund (elevation 5750 feet) divides the Urja-sara plain from the Spasta plain.
In June 1891, the first Political Agent in Zhob, Captain I. MacIver (22 January 1890 to 14 March 1898), and Sir Henry visited the area of Takht-e-Sulaiman and recorded their account, dated 8 August 1894 and published in the Geographical Journal for that year. The Takht-e-Sulaiman is situated on a ledge below the crest of the southernmost bluff of Kaisa- Ghar Mountain. The two sister peaks (Shin Ghar and KiasaGhar) form the highest part of the Suleiman range.Many legends attach to this place; one legend says Noah’s Ark alighted here after the Deluge, while others connect it with King Solomon, whose throne alighted on this peak, which has ever since borne the name of Takht-i-Suleiman. Lofty ranges west of the Takht-i-Suleiman contain strata of the liassic (lower Jurassic) and middle Jurassic (about 208 to 146 million years ago).
Name of Health Facilities
Chalghoza Forest Chalghoza trees (Edible Pine) have covered Koh-e-Suleiman Mountain. It is the world’s largest pure Chalghoza forest. Pakistan is the 5th top producers of Chilghoza (pine nuts) in the world, having 15% share in the world’s pine nuts production. It is the pure chalghoza forest since unlike chalghoza forests of South Waziristan, Chitral,Diamer and Afghanistan, the trees of Koh-e-Suleiman are not neighbored by Pinuswellichenae locally called Nishter or Kail. There is 2560 acre notified area covered by Pure Chalghoza forest in District Sherani. Recently( September 2019), Food and Agriculture Organization of UN launched a four-year project titled “Reversing Deforestation and forest degradation in high conservation value chalghoza pine in pakistan” this project is related to to the implementation of chalghoza forest landscape conservation, restoration and value chain development at community level and bringing around 30,000 hectares area of chalghoza forest under sustainable forest management through active participation of the local communities. This will also include 3600 hectares under Assisted Natural Regeneration and 800 hectares under agro forestry and farm forestry.
Olive Forest Climate of the district provides a kind of natural habitat for the growth of Olive trees. In district there are two species of Olive i.e wild Olive (OliaFerruginea) and Grafted Olive (OliaEuropea). The latter (of Italy/Spain origin) was grown by Forest Department in 2010 that was a successful test case. There are around 7-8 thousands trees of wild olive and 100-200 trees of Grafted specie in state owned forest. There is 3350 Acre notified area of Olive State Forest at Kapip. The trees and forest owned by communities are not documented. Nuts of grafted Olive are large in size that has good quantity of oil. Around 20-22 liters of oil can be extracted from 100 kg nuts of grafted olive. The nuts of wild olive are small in size with less quantity of oil as a 7-8 liters oil can be extracted from 100 kgs wild nuts. This field has not attracted the attention of the people because of lack of awareness. Also, lack of expeller/extractor, massive grafting drive and community sensitization, are among multiple factors due to which revenue generation from Olive forest is yet to be seen.
Lofty mountains in the district are also the abode of the indigenous but endangered species of wild goat called the Suleiman markhor (Capra falconerijerdoni) and the wild sheep called the Urial (Ovisorientaliscycloceros). Due to over-hunting many species have migrated to other safe meadows. Wolves, jackals, rabbits, wild cats and deer can be found in Sherani of game birds, chikor and sissy are found at high altitudes, while sand grouse, quail (khirgutae), partridges and Houbara bustards (taloor or charai) are met with in the plains. Other game birds are warblers, hikras, pigeons, golden eagles, sparrows, hawks, falcons, doves and bearded vultures.